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The Humanitarian Movement 

Explanatory Note - Why 'The Humanitarian Movement?'

 The ideas underlying the European Humanitarian movement ~ Introductory outline 

The Origins and Evolution of the Humanitarian idea ~  The Stoic Origins of the Idea of the Person and the Idea of Natural Law ~ The Roman Law Background to Natural Law ~ Quotations from Stoic philosophers on human spiritual equality  ~ The Idea of the Soul and the formation of European Individualism, Jewish, Greek and Christian influences ~Protestantism and Humanitarianism  Rationalism and Religious Toleration in Europe ~ Enlightenment Rationalism ~ The Christian Reformers, the Quakers and social action

Humanitarian Social Action in the Nineteenth CenturySlavery, the Slave Trade and their abolition ~ The conditions of workers in the nineteenth century ~  The humanising of punishments and Prison Reform ~  The abolition of torture on the Continent and ~  The treatment of the mentally ill ~ Humanitarianism and the conditions of women in the nineteenth century ~ The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ~ The Red Cross and the Geneva Convention

Ideas related to Humanitarianism ~ Natural Rights and Humanitarian Wrongs ~ Natural Rights and Humanitarianism ~ Equality ~ Conflict between Natural Rights theory and Humanitarianism ~ Conflict between evangelicals and utilitarians

Ideas and Movements Contrary to Humanitarianism
~ Early European colonization, the Indies and South America, Las Casas ~ European colonization, the second wave, India ~ European colonization, the ‘trust’ ideal, other colonial possessions ~ Colonial land acquisition in the nineteenth century, its impact upon American Indians,  New Zealand Maoris and certain Pacific territories ~ The impact of humanitarianism, the trust ideal, an assessment ~ Footnotes
Racialism ~ European anti-semitism; a failure of the humanitarian  movement ~  The Enlightenment and antisemitism (1790-1870) – the graft that failed to ‘take’: ~ Christian anti-Semitism ~ Antisemitism- post 1870- racialism ~ Endnotes ~ Jews in China ~ Letter from I.G.Farben Chemical Trust  ~
War and Nationalism ~
War in Europe since the 18th Century ~  ~ Attitudes to War during the Enlightenment ~ War and nationalism and ideas related to nationalism ~ The nature of nationalism ~ The idea of nationality ~  Patriotism and national feeling ~ Rousseau, the ‘general will’ and nationalism ~ War and the merger of German nationalism with Prussian militarism ~ German nationalism – its development ~ Prussia and militarism ~ The union of German nationalism and Prussian militarism ~ The influence of German philosophy and Rousseau, the nation identified with the state ~ The merger of German nationalism and Prussian militarism ~ German nationalism and war ~ Ideas related to nationalism ~ Nationalism and the masses ~ War and conscription ~ Destructiveness of war in the 20th century ~ Concluding remarks and summary of the central ideas ~ End Notes ~List of Works consulted]

Humanitarianism and the non-Western religions ~ Introductory Outline~ The impact of the West  ~  The response of westernisation   Internal reform of religion as a response to western ideas The zealot reaction to the western impact ~  Hinduism and ideas underlying western humanitarianism ~ Caste, untouchabilty and Hindu social practices The European influenceEnd Notes to HinduismBuddhism and the ideas underlying weatern humanitarianism ~  The historical rise of the Mahayana ~  The Bodhissatvas ~ Islam and the ideas underlying Western HumanitarianismIslam and religious tolerationThe sharia and its critical place in Islam, background to the Islamic reaction to humanitarian ideas ~ A brief history to the interpretation of the sharia Comparisons and contrast with medieval christianityThe sharia and areas of humanitarian action Criminal punishments ~ The treatment of women Saudi ArabiaThe decline and rise of the sharia  ~ Islamicism and the revival of the shariaContemporary treatment of women and criminal punishmentsAfghanistanwomen and the TalibanIranNigeriaPakistan The future of Islamicism End Notes to IslamChristian persecution, crusades and torture ~ Baghdad